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HOW TO LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION

 

MATERIALS

 

Aggregates:

 

  1. Crusher Run Gravel:Main bed paving material - aka pit run, crushed gravel.Particle sizes range from dust to ¾”.
  2. Screenings:Not a good construction material, used for setting beds – aka stone dust, blue stone.Particle sizes range from dust up to ¼”.
  3. Clear Gravel:All the dust has been sifted out by washing the stone – aka washed stone.Particle sizes are uniform, eg. ¾” clear = all ¾” particles.Not for driveway use, as it will    never compact.

 

Sand:

 

  1. Coarse:Mixed with gravel to make concrete – aka builder’s sand, concrete sand.Particle sizes range from dust to 1/8”.
  2.  Fine:Mixed with cement to make mortar – aka sandbox sand, brick sand.Particle sizes range from dust to large dust. 
  3.  Silica Sand:Pure quartz with the dust washed out.It is used in sandblasting, and in landscaping to fill in between interlocking paving stones.

 

Decorative Gravel:

 

  1. Round Washed Pebble:Used in paths, ponds, landscape beds, and driveways – aka beach stone, potato stone.Sizes range from ¾” to 8”.The stones sized 6” – 8” are also known as Algonquin pebble or gabion stone.The most common sizes are 1” – 4”.
  2. Crushed Tile:Comes in crusher run, screening and clear gravel.Sizes range from ½” – 1”.
  3. Volcanic Stone:It is very light weight and is ideal for retaining moisture and is ideal for use around shrubs and flowers.
  4. Quartz or White Marble:A pure white stone.

 

Paving Materials:

 

  1. Also known as Bitumen and is used in the construction of roads and driveways. 
  2. Poured concrete:Can be plain, colored or patterned with exposed aggregates.
  3. Concrete pavers:Comes in various sizes 
    1.  Patio and Sidewalk Pavers 
    2.  Interlocking Stone 
    3.  Flagstone Pavers

PAVING AREA SIZES

 

WALKWAYS

Residential:minimum of 4’ wide, to accommodate 2 people walking side by side, except

when leading to a door – opening should be as wide as the entire entry way (including exterior lights).

Utility Area:wide enough to accommodate garden equipment – approx. 30”.

Garden Path:narrow – approximately 24”

Commercial:minimum of 6’ wide.

 

INTERLOCKING STONE INSTALLATION

 

 

Note:The most important aspect of installing paving materials is base preparation.

         :Before digging, contact utility companies to find out where buried lines are located.

 

LIGHT USE – WALKWAYS, PATIOS

 

  1. Excavation:Dig out approximately 8” of soil (approximately, as it will depend on the thickness of the paving stones).Then dig out 6” beyond the excavation site. 
  2. Remove any rocks and organic matter, and fill any holes with gravel. 
  3. Compact the base soil with a plate tamper.
  4. Install ¾” crusher run – approximately 6 1/4” deep, so that when the material is compacted, it will be 5” thick. 
  5. Level to the same grade as desired for the paved area – must be close to perfect, within ½” either way. 
  6. Install next layer of aggregate – this is the setting bed.1” coarse sand or limestone screening. 
  7. Screed the area, to obtain the proper grade.Lay a pair of 1” pipe across the surface area, then drag a board over the pipes (4’ -6’ at a time).
  8. Install install interlocking stone – for straight pattern lines use, string lines.
    • start at one end and work your way in
    • set stones “hand” tight (use your hands to set stones in place)
    • circular patterns, included in the design, must be installed first and from the center out (in this step you will have to step on your compacted surface)
  9.   Cut and fit – use either a power saw, with a diamond blade, to cut stones to fit, or for a quick cut use a guillotine breaker. 
  10.  Put sand in between the joints (across the stones). Then use the plate tamper to set the stones firmly in place. Use water and a broom to move the sand between the stones.

 

HEAVY USE – ROADWAYS, DRIVEWAYS

 

  1. Excavation: dig out approximately 8” of soil (approximately, as it will depend on the thickness of the paving stones).Then dig out 6” beyond the excavation site.
  2.  Remove any rocks and organic matter, and fill any holes with gravel. 
  3.  Compact the base soil with a plate tamper.
  4.  Lay the first layer of gravel – 6” of heavy, 2” crusher run (after compaction).Use a large, industrial roller.
    • this 6” layer should go down in 2 lifts (4” at a time)
    • keep gravel moist to bind the layers together
  5. Lay the second layer of gravel – 5” layer of ¾” crusher run (after compaction with roller).

 

 

SEALING CONCRETE PAVERS

 

Note:  Allow the concrete to cure and the pavers to settle for 60 days, before applying sealant.

 

Cleaning Pavers

 

  1.  Sweep the paved area clean
  2.  Using a mixture of water and household cleaner, scrub the pavers clean.
  3.  Any stubborn stains can be treated with concrete stain remover.
  4.  Rinse throughly, preferably with a pressure washer.

 

 

Applying Sealant

 

Note:  Sand and stone must be completely dry, before applying sealant.

 

  1.  Using a paint roller with an extended handle, begin sealing pavers by applying the sealant to the surface.
  2.  Start in a corner and work out from there to prevent getting trapped.
  3.  Avoid using too much sealant, as it will result in an uneven appearance.
  4.  Allow the paver sealant to dry for a couple of hours and reapply if necessary.